That Salazarism cannot be considered as a "fascism" constitutes a given that all historians accept today. Can one, however, reduce it to a simple dictatorship? Not at all. The desire to transform Portugal, the emergence of original institutions, and the alliance contracted between the Church and the regime reflect an ambition that could not be reduced to the absolute power of a man alone. This suggests the interest in going back to the dossier for a comparative study.